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GPS Receivers: Little Devices in a Enormous Navigation System
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Each and every one of us must have already heard about Global Positioning System receivers. We hear about them whenever a new luxury vehicle is launched. We also often hear about them from our techie and adventurous friends. But while the term is so common, many of us really know nothing about the thing. So what really is a Global Positioning System receiver?
A GPS receiver, or simply Global Positioning System as other people would call it, is an electronic device that can determine one's precise location on earth. Calling the device simply GPS, however, is incorrect because the receiver is but a single and small part of the GPS, which is a very large navigation system.
GPS in Brief
The abbreviation Global Positioning System stands for Global Positioning System. It is a very large navigation system that was developed and implemented by the United States' Department of Defense (DOD). The system is composed of a network of 27 satellites, different ground stations around the world, and Global Positioning System receivers. 24 out of the 27 satellites in the GPS are active and they continuously send radio signals. These signals, in turn, are used by Global Positioning System receiver to determine their geographical location.
How GPS Receivers Work
The primary function of a GPS receiver is to calculate its actual location on earth using the signals it intercepts from Global Positioning System satellites. To do this, the Global Positioning System receiver must be able to locate three or more Global Positioning System satellites from where it will intercept signals. After intercepting the signals, it will use the basic principle of mathematics called trilateration or triangulation to compute its actual position.
Now, before any triangulation calculation can be implemented, the GPS receiver must first know 2 things:
- the position of at least 3 satellites, and
- the distance of each satellite to the receiver.
A Global Positioning System receiver can determine the location of at least three Global Positioning System satellites by decoding the signals it receives. The signals transmitted by GPS satellites are radio signals that contain three different bits of information: a pseudorandom code, ephemeris data, and almanac data. From the three, it is the ephemeris data that actually gives the actual position of the satellite transmitting the signal.
For the distance of a Global Positioning System satellite from the GPS receiver, the receiver simply measures the signal's speed, or the time delay from the transmission of the signal to its reception. From this speed or time difference, it can determine the satellite's distance.
With information about the location of at least three or four satellites and their individual distances, and by using the principle of triangulation, the Global Positioning System can calculate its actual position in terms of latitude, longitude, and altitude.
Accuracy of GPS Receivers
In general, GPS receivers are accurate to within 20 meters of radius. With the use of supplemental technologies, however, modern GPS receivers can increase this accuracy level. GPS receivers using multiple parallel channels, for example, can increase the accuracy level to 15 meters. More complex systems like WAAS (Wide Area Augmentation System) and DGPS (Differential Global Positioning System) can even reduce this range up to less than 3 meters.
Despite the use of these supplemental technologies, there are still a lot of factors that can cause even the best Global Positioning System receiver to broadcast inaccurate locations. Among these factors are:
- Radio signal delay as it passes through the ionosphere and troposphere
- Bouncing of signal as it hits an object (signal multipath)
- Inaccuracy of Global Positioning System receiver clock
- Ephemeris errors, or inaccuracy of the satellite's reported location
- Number of satellites visible
- Poor positioning of satellites (satellites are in a linear position or in a tight grouping)
Although some of the Global Positioning System errors that these factors cause can be remedied by the software that comes along with the GPS receiver, others simply can't. Nonetheless, Global Positioning System receiver manufacturers are continuously developing technologies to correct these inaccuracies.
is it a sin to feel pride after you unload a dump so huge, your modern low flushtoilet backs up?
for a few seconds before grudgingly accepting your deposit
You are sick.
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Modern Huge Canvas
Current Vanities The Current Bathroom Vanity
You should look at a current bathroom vanity set or recent vanities if you enclose ultimately determined to update that antiquated bathroom. Take a long, hard look at your bathroom. Your vanity has seen improved days and if you include to scrub the sink one further year it is going to contain second tear in it. Past each, the vanity was last changed when your first child was born and that vanity's best days are long departed.
These days, suppose your bathroom is a blank canvas. The design possibilities are endless and a few of the most beautiful modern vanities are available to bring about a new masterpiece. Take into consideration all the ingredients of your bathroom vanity. The mirror, the sink, the top, and the cabinet are the major parts of your bathroom.
Contemporary bathroom vanities hold several of the most exclusive and stylish browsing vanities and accessories, you'll wonder why you waited subsequently long to update your bathroom. Normally the mirror is margin-less. The sink design will almost certainly be extremely exclusive and stand out. Your cabinets will be sterile browsing. These modern bathroom vanities will supply your bathroom a further contemporary look.
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Using metal and the wide organize of charming colors that are available in this and age your bathroom will reflect the contemporary outer shell that will be classic. A existing glass vanity with porcelain bowl and your conclusion of faucets is any more technique that will forever exchange your bathroom. Present vanities are person style a homeowner could offer their home a personalized look.
A personalized bathroom will be person of the most important changes you may possibly present to your home. Not barely will you get pleasure from it immensely conversely it will add make use of the fee of your home. Include various fun, come to a decision something that you will as a final point be the most fulfilled with and like. You may possibly't go mistaken if your personal method is unique and reflected with modern vanities for your bathrooms.
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